This exposure to n-value generates a variety of questions about its importance, measurement, source, application and other sometimes fine details. ... S355J2+N/M is the direct EN equivalent of ASTM A572 GR 50. • Can you explain why specifying the minimum yield strength of higher strength steels limits the maximum n-value? The processes used to strengthen the metal also reduce the n-value. 1) Mild Steel Bars: Mild steel bars can be supplied in two grades . Pipe-arches approx-imately have the same roughness characteristics as their equivalent round pipes. A typical S-N curve corresponding to this type of material is shown Curve A in Figure 1. Anisotropy is, more importantly, also caused by preferred crystallographic orientation or “texture” in the steel. The arrow B represents the minimum specified yield strength. Perhaps the person was familiar with equations such as that used to calculate carbon equivalent (CE) used to predict the relative difficulty of welding. n-value, also known as the strain hardening exponent, is the measure of a metal’s response to cold working. "simulated" uses Nsim simulated standardized Steel statistics based on random splits of the pooled samples into samples of sizes \(n_1, \ldots, n_k\), to estimate the \(P\)-value. Steel - Coal-tar enamel: 0.010: Steel - smooth: 0.012: Steel - New unlined: 0.011: Steel - Riveted: 0.019: Vitrified clay sewer pipe: 0.013 - 0.015: Wood - planed: 0.012: Wood - unplaned: 0.013: Wood stave pipe, small diameter: 0.011 - 0.012: Wood stave pipe, large diameter: 0.012 - 0.013 - Above 480 °C (900 °F), the value of the modulus of elasticity decreases rapidly. Location B indicates the maximum, n-value expected when the minimum yield strength is specified. Is there some other of estimating n-value? Corrugated Steel Pipe—Manning's "n" Value 60 in. Physical Requirement: Corrugated Steel Pipe—Manning's "n" Value 60 in. For years the n-values were only good to two decimal places. It is likely to gradually replace the use of Hp/A. The n-value is determined by tensile stress and strain values; while for the r-value calculation the specimen section measurement is also required. 12 in. Get to know the n-value. Oil Retreats on Signs of OPEC+ Discord Ahead of Key Meeting. See Note 5. and Larger When metal alloys are cold worked, their yield strength increases. Is the third decimal place accurate? In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Long-term readers of The Science of Forming column and attendees at PMA metalforming seminars are acutely aware of the emphasis given to the workhardening of metals and the workhardening exponent or n-value. The n-value is determined by tensile stress and strain values; while for the r-value calculation the specimen section measurement is also required. Many translated example sentences containing "value of steel" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. It depends according to the deformation grade applied. The n-Value, i.e. Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs. Steel traded at USD 711 per metric ton on 6 November, which was up 12.7% from the same day in the prior month. The value of the strain hardening exponent lies between 0 and 1. 36 in. Cold working is the plastic deformation of metal below its recrystallization temperature and this is used in many manufacturing processes, such as wire drawing, forging and rolling. Stainless Steel, Special Steel, Compressor Blading, Turbine Blading, Superalloy Supplier. Haihong International Trade (HK) CO., Limited. The Lankford coefficient (also called Lankford value, R-value, or plastic strain ratio) is a measure of the plastic anisotropy of a rolled sheet metal.This scalar quantity is used extensively as an indicator of the formability of recrystallized low-carbon steel sheets. Use it. A value of 0 means that a material is a perfectly plastic solid, while a value of 1 represents a 100% elastic solid. N The graph shows why this relationship happens. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The Tube & Pipe Journal. 0 0. Steel (USA) Price Outlook Prices for hot-rolled coil U.S. steel continued to soar in recent weeks, hitting a one-year high, amid strong manufacturing activity data in China and the U.S in October. Steel's Multiple Comparison Wilcoxon Tests. For structural design it is standard practice to consider the unit weight of structural steel equal to γ = 78.5 kN/m 3 and the density of structural steel approximately ρ = 7850 kg/m 3. It should be noted that, for submerged sands, the SPT-N value needs to be reduced (N red) using the following relationship for SPT-N values exceeding 15. Title: Microsoft Word - IB 4001 Mannings n Value Research.doc Author: SCMcKeen Created Date: 12/28/2005 3:43:44 PM 24 in. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of STAMPING Journal, which serves the metal stamping market with the latest technology advancements, best practices, and industry news. Design values of structural steel material properties Nominal values of structural steel yield strength and ultimate strength For structural design according to Eurocode 3 (EN1993-1-1), the nominal values of the yield strength f y and the ultimate strength f u for structural steel are obtained as a simplification from EN1993-1-1 Table 3.1 , which is reproduced above in tabular format. I think N/mm^2 is then MPa since (10^–3)^2, inverted is 10^6. These conversion charts are provided for guidance only as each scales uses different methods of measuring hardness. Other possibilities include a different chemistry, different processing, or even shipment of the wrong coil. Why is there a difference? Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The Fabricator en Español. The mechanical properties of the coil ends may be different because they undergo different processing conditions compared to locations interior to the coil. Call now! Hope this helps. Wrought Iron: Black : 0.012: 0.014: 0.015: Galvanized: 0.013: 0.016: 0.017: 5. n-value noun. The intersection is the maximum n-value. The Young's modulus of the steel is 19 × 10¹⁰ N/m². P: 216-901-8800 | F: 216-901-9669
If the property data are acquired automatically during a tensile test and processed by computer software, most of the new property calculation codes automatically compute n-value. 1 MPa = 10 6 Pa = 1 N/mm 2 = 145.0 psi (lbf/in 2); Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure. The greater the spread between the yield and tensile strengths, the steeper will be the stress-strain curve and the higher the n-value. At ambient temperature between (160 to 200) MPa. A/V measures the rate of temperature increase of a steel cross section by the ratio of the heated surface area to the volume. SAE AISI 4140 Alloy Steel. A more truthful reason is a lack of understanding. Pipe-arches approx-imately have the same roughness characteristics as their equivalent round pipes. A more truthful reason is a lack of understanding. Accoding to The ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals 2005 Chapter 39 Table 3. Detailer – a person or entity that is charged with the production of the advanced bill of materials, final bill of materials, and the production of all shop drawings necessary to purchase, fabricate and erect structural steel. mighthaveverydifferentvalues.Nevertheless,intheabsenceof the stress-strain data for thematerial itself, the assumption, that the data derived from the testsof theshort columns may logically DENSITY OF STEEL. roughness than for annually corrugated steel pipe. Comparing steel standards is not an exact science, so the biggest challenge of preparing such a book was deciding on the "rules of comparison." Get your online quote today! If you have any comments or questions about the glossary, please contact Dan Davis, editor-in-chief of The FABRICATOR. • The n-values for a coil of steel often are given to three decimal places. steel, which has higher ductility and is capable of being formed into a wide variety of shapes. 15 in. We have to convert it into dyne/cm². The unit weight of structural steel is specified in the design standard EN 1991-1-1 Table A.4 between 77.0 kN/m 3 and 78.5 kN/m 3. And also 1 m² = 10⁴ cm². A steel mill or service center sometimes will correct poor shape with an extra heavy temper pass. References Cast irom, ASTM A48, structural steel fro bridges and structures, ASTM A7. Source: Admet Inc. Ductility is defined as the ability of a material to deform plastically before fracturing. Steel Pipe, Ungalvanized: 0.015 — Cast Iron Pipe: 0.015 — Clay Sewer Pipe: 0.013 — Polymer Concrete Grated Line Drain: 0.011: 0.010 – 0.013: Notes: (1) Tabulated n-values apply to circular pipes flowing full except for the grated line drain. The time dependent deformation due to heavy load over time is known as creep.. Value of a 1943 Steel Penny . TEHRAN, Nov. 29 (MNA) – The export value of steel products of the country exceeded $1.5 billion in the first seven months of the current Iranian calendar year (from March 21 to Oct. 22). A higher ratio means more stretchability. Could the 2020s turn out like the 2010s for metal fabricators? They provide a quick checklist to those very familiar with the n-value, and an introduction for those less active in the field. 2) Medium Tensile Steel Bars designated as Fe- 540-w-ht or Grade 75 . Standard ASTM E8 Tensile Specimen. It got great weldability and machinability, let us see more mechanical details of this steel. The work-hardening exponent of sheet steel which indicates how much the material strengthens when the material is deformed. Value of a 1943 Steel Penny . Specimens are obtained from the strip or sheet at set angles with respect to the lamination direction which affects the r-value. Determine the K and n values. Various strengthening mechanisms are employed to achieve a range of strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue properties. For the last decade, a large number of steel producers have improved their process control procedures so the n-value throughout most of the coil varies in the third decimal place. Events Events Events . | Independence | Ohio 44131-2500
Your steel supplier must run its tests from the coil ends. Reply. This problem is highlighted as point A in the graph. The higher the n-value, the steeper the stress-strain curve in the uniform elongation region of the tensile test. Concrete: • How much additional tensile testing is required to obtain the n-value? 18 in. For this reason, some of the new advanced higher strength steels have complex microstructures that allow higher n-values for the same strength. Conversions The n-value is the one property of sheetmetal that helps the most in evaluating its relative stretchability. It will become your most powerful trouble-shooter for sheetmetal stretch failures. Usually none. The test-piece has an initial width of 10 mm, thickness of 1.4 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. Tests show somewhat higher n values for this metal and type of construction than for riveted construction. The work-hardening exponent of sheet steel which indicates how much the material strengthens when the material is deformed. The higher the Hp/A, the faster the steel section heats up and so the greater the thickness of fire protection material required. Events Events Our major market-leading conferences and events offer optimum networking opportunities to all participants while adding great value to their business. Fortunately, the n-value is not that complicated, but is a primary metal property measured directly during a tensile test. The upper curve is the maximum expected n-value as a function of yield strength. S355JR can be supplied as steel plate/ sheet, round steel bar, steel tube/pipe, steel stripe, steel billet, steel ingot, steel wire rods. Structural steel grades are designed with specific chemical compositions and mechanical properties formulated for particular applications. but low carbon steel varies a range of 20.59*104 Mpa and pre hardened steels 19.14*104 Mpa Last month this column emphasized that our traditional steels have work-hardening exponents (n-values) that remain constant during deformation. This table shows approximate hardness of steel using Brinell, Rockwell B and C and Vickers scales. At Value Steel & Pipe we’re all about offering high-quality product to our customers at some of the industry’s most competitive prices.We specialize in sourcing and selling excess stock materials such as Mild Steel Plate, H.S.S. 2.25 2.05 Er value 9.6 Study it. For years the n-values were only good to two decimal places. 12:00 AM . Excessive stretching leads to local necking and tearing of the stamping. ; Creep. Compared to the current share price of AU$14.9, the company appears around fair value at the time of writing. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The FABRICATOR. A good knowledge of the basic mechanical properties of these steels is needed for a satisfactory use of them. LOW CARBON STEELS 28 10 in. They simply appear together in a list of steels. If the steel is C15, with the material at 900°C 144 MPa, while at 1200°C 65 MPa. 11/27/2020 . Highest price of steel per pound in all of Florida. They are worth about 10 to 13 cents each in circulated condition, and as much as 50 cents or more if uncirculated.. However, a fourth or fifth decimal place n-values are sometimes published. Definitions. Likewise, the TS/YS ratio will increase with the increased spread. SAE 4140 (AISI 4140 steel) is a Cr-Mo series (Chrome molybdenum series) low alloy steel, this material has high strength and hardenability, good toughness, small deformation during quenching, high creep strength and long-lasting strength at high temperature. The sheet thickness is retained as specimen thickness, while the parallel length is obtained by milling or punching operations. 24 in. Is there a of obtaining the n-value from only that single piece of data? A reduction in impurities such as C and N and addition of stabi- ... n-value 0.19 0.18 0.46 Table 3 r-value and forming properties NSSC 180 SUS304 r-value average 1.4 1.0 L.D.R. The following table lists the buy price (what you can expect to pay to a dealer to purchase the coin) and sell value (what you can expect a dealer to pay you if you sell the coin). strain hardening exponent, has been shown to correlate with stretch forming behavior, while the r m is a measure of deep-drawing capability. AHSS are complex, sophisticated materials, with carefully selected chemical compositions and multiphase microstructures resulting from precisely controlled heating and cooling processes. 6363 Oak Tree Blvd. Study it. Average n values range from 0.035 (steel) or 0.036 (aluminum) for 5-foot-diameter pipes to 0.033 for pipes of 18 feet or greater diameter. a - Minimum specified value of the American Society of Testing Materials. 18 in. N/mm2 is not SI. Often the n-value is ignored because it seems too complex. The n-value is measured over a strain range from 10 to 20 percent, 7 to 15 percent or 10 percent to UTS. 2. 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Tensile / yield strengths and ductilities for some of the plain carbon and low alloy steels are given in the following mechanical properties of steel chart. Structural steel is a standard construction material made from specific grades of steel and formed in a range of industry-standard cross-sectional shapes (or ‘Sections’). While the yield strength may increase slightly, a major reduction in the n-value will take place. For low-carbon steels that have a single microstructure of ferrite, a historical data band can be constructed (See graph). ε = strain (m/m, in/in) dL = elongation or compression (offset) of object (m, in) L = length of object (m, in) Stress - σ. Young's modulus of carbon steels (mild, medium and high), alloy steels, stainless steels and tool steels are given in the following table in GPA and ksi. This function uses pairwise Wilcoxon tests, comparing a common control sample with each of several treatment samples, in a multiple comparison fashion. N umerous research programmes show that some types of fully stressed steel sections can achieve a 30 minute fire resistance without ... factor is presented as A/V which has the same numerical value as Hp/A. Cement: Neat Surface: 0.010: 0.011: 0.013: Mortar: 0.011: 0.013: 0.015: 7. To obtain a higher n value, one would have to reduce the yield strength below the specification. 2-2/3” x 1/2” Annular 8 in. This usually indicates that the computer has been allowed to calculate a large number of decimal places that are not meaningful nor scientifically accurate. The steel has a 6-inch pitch and a 2-inch rise; aluminum has a 9-inch pitch and a 2.5-inch rise. Use it. TEL:+86-816-3646575 FAX: +86-816-3639422 The limiting value is dependent on material, but is generally between 5 and 6. Corrugated Metal: Subdrain: 0.017: 0.019: 0.021: Stormdrain: 0.021: 0.024: 0.030: 6. N/A: 11/27/2020: an hour ago . natural channels with stones and weeds: 0.035. very poor natural channels We know that the relationship between dyne and Newton is, 1 Newton = 10⁵ dyne. It will become your most powerful trouble-shooter for sheetmetal stretch failures. • We run n-value tests on some of our blanks, but the results are different from those provided by our steel supplier. "exact" uses full enumeration of all sample splits with resulting standardized Steel statistics to obtain the exact \(P\)-value. After metals have reached their elastic limit and plastically deform they experience strain hardening, which can increase the strength within the final products application. 12 in. Cast Iron: Coated : 0.010: 0.013: 0.014: Uncoated: 0.011: 0.014: 0.016: 4. Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, Intl. Modulus of Elasticity for Metals. 2135 Point Blvd., Elgin, IL 60123 (815) 399-8700. Various strengthening mechanisms are employed to achieve a range of strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue properties. Get to know the n-value. S355 J2+N Steel Plate Grade Specification : Material: Material En-10025-2 Steel Plate , S355 J2+N Steel Plate Standard: EN 10025-2:2004 Item: Offshore & Structural Steel Plate Width: 1000mm-4500mm Thickness: 5mm-150mm Length: 3000mm-18000mm Surface treatment: Bare, galvanized coated or as customer's requirements. Strain is the "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as. Metric is Pascals, N/m^2. The die reacts to the properties of the incoming blank. The value of the strain hardening exponent lies between 0 and 1. There is a complex equation based on the tensile strength/yield strength ratio. A typical value of the modulus of elasticity: - at 200 °C (400 °F) is about 193 GPa (28 × 10 6 psi); - at 360 °C (680 °F), 179 GPa (26 × 10 6 psi); - at 445 °C (830 °F), 165 GPa (24 × 10 6 psi); - and at 490 °C (910 °F), 152 GPa (22 × 10 6 psi). If the exact value of n is not needed, two or more material samples can be compared using just the TS/YS ratio if none of the samples have any yield point elongation (YPE). 48 in. An example might be: I have never heard this type of question asked before last month. Steel prices saw some correction in the last week of November following a massive rally that pushed prices to an eleven-month high of 4,125 Yuan/MT as construction activity in China is expected to slow when the weather turns colder. Guaranteed. FINISHLINE All-In-One Deburring & Finishing Solution. EU Quota Tracking EU Quota Tracking. N = 0.5(N 1 + N 2) Where N 1 is the smallest SPT-N values over the two effective diameters below the toe level N 2 is the average SPT-N value over 10 effective diameters below the pile toe. Modulus of Elasticity Young's Modulus Strength for Metals - Iron and Steel Specimens are obtained from the strip or sheet at set angles with respect to the lamination direction which affects the r-value. TENSILE - YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL CHART. • Is n-value a super-property that combines different material properties to assess formability? A number of these issues are reviewed this month. S355 steel is a structural steel with a specified minimum yield strength of 355 N/mm². 1.3 Forming Properties of Steel 9 1.3.1 Stretchability Index: n-values 11 1.3.2 Drawability index: r-values 14 1.4 Ultrasonic Measurements of r-values: Ultra-Form 19 1.4.1 Review 19 1.4.2 Ultra-Form's Description 22 1.4.3 Other Recent Advances 24 1.5 The Present Research 24 CHAPTER 2. They are worth about 10 to 13 cents each in circulated condition, and as much as 50 cents or more if uncirculated.. 4140 Steel Uses. For the last decade, a large number of steel producers have improved their process control procedures so the n-value throughout most of the coil varies in the third decimal place. σ = F / A (2) where. Absolutely. Point A shows a steel sample with an n-value below the expected value. According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical, and environmental properties. Material Properties of S355 Steel - An Overview S355 is a non-alloy European standard (EN 10025-2) structural steel, most commonly used after S235 where more strength is needed. PRESS HARDENABLE STEELS (PHS) Press Hardenable Steel (PHS), commonly referred to as Mn22B5 or 15B22, is available as Cold Rolled full hard or annealed and tempered. n-Value The strain hardening exponent n is a measure of the response of metallic materials after cold working. The n-value decreases with increasing yield strength. However, a fourth or fifth decimal place n-values are … And stainless steel is about 4% lower. 10 in. Often the n-value is ignored because it seems too complex. as the young’s modulus or elastic modulus of steel varies by the alloying additions in the steel. electroslag, forged ring/ block,etc. of the steel exposed to the fire and the mass of the steel section. 12/1/2020 11:23:56 PM126.96.36.199. In cold-formed steel construction, the use of a range of thin, high strength steels (0.35 mm thickness and 550 MPa yield stress) has increased significantly in recent times. and Larger Using the r-values in the three directions, two other important parameters are calculated. Is this related to the n-value? The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and 8050 kg/m 3 or 0.280 and 0.291 lb/in 3).The theoretical density of mild steel (low-carbon steel) is about 7.87 g/cm 3 (0.284 lb/in 3).. Density of carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels and stainless steels are shown below in g/cm 3, kg/m 3 and lb/in 3. • Sometimes a coil is received that fails in a severe stretch area, while other coils form successfully. This shows the steel with the 20,000 PSI spread will have more stretchability than the steel with only a 10,000 PSI spread. Yield Strength, Tensile Strength and Ductility Values for Steels at Room Temperature: Material: Yield Strength: Tensile Strength % Elong. • Our tensile test machine does not compute the n-value. Is the third decimal place accurate? The n-value is the amount of strengthening for each increment of straining. The test-piece has an initial width of 10 mm, thickness of 1.4 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. A value of 0 means that a … 36 in.
It really does not care what caused the difference. The N value (standard Penetration test) value is widely used in Geotechnical Engineering designs especially in India and nearby countries. C. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND STAINLESS STEEL 360 Table C.1: Nominal values of yield strength f y and ultimate tensile strength f u for hot rolled structural steel Standard and steel grade Nominal thickness of the element t [mm] t 40mm 40mm < t 80mm f y [N/mm 2] f u [N/mm ] f y [N/mm 2] f u [N/mm 2] EN 10025-2 S235 235 360 215 360 S275 275 430 255 410 Steel: Lockbar and welded: 0.010: 0.012: 0.014: Riveted and spiral: 0.013: 0.016: 0.017: 3. © 2020 FMA Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. All steels have same modulus.. 200 to 210 GPa, or (in your units) those numbers times 1000. Strength  Yield strengtYield strength is the most common property that the designer will need as it is the basis used for most of the rules given in design codes.In European Standards for structural carbon steels (including weathering steel), the primary designation relates to the yield strength, e.g. Determine the K and n values. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The WELDER. Checking the n-value of the problem coil would be a good first step. Delta r (∆ r) is called the “planar anisotropy parameter” in the formula: ∆ r = (r 0 + r 90 - 2r 45)/2. 48 in. Mexico Metalforming Technology Conference. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of The Additive Report to learn how to use additive manufacturing technology to increase operational efficiency and improve the bottom line. Internal … Your test locations most likely are from blanks within the coil. The U value of Steel is 26.2 or an R value of .0382. Structural steel is a standard construction material made from specific grades of steel and formed in a range of industry-standard cross-sectional shapes (or ‘Sections’). The n-value will print with the rest of the data if the n-value switch is turned on. Pipe, Angles, Expanded Metal, Flat bars, Rounds,Channels and Rebar products. Steel has little or no resistance to heat transfer. The N value (standard Penetration test) value is widely used in Geotechnical Engineering designs especially in India and nearby countries. Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as. roughness than for annually corrugated steel pipe. In essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and additional alloying elements that determine the properties of each steel grade. It is the ratio of the stress and the strain of a material. steel (or more) that may stand alone in the structure or that is one of many pieces in an assembly or shipping piece. (2) For lined corrugated metal pipe, a composite roughness coefficient may be computed using the procedures outlined in the HDS No. ε = dL / L (1) where. • The n-values for a coil of steel often are given to three decimal places. AHSS are complex, sophisticated materials, with carefully selected chemical compositions and multiphase microstructures resulting from precisely controlled heating and cooling processes. MF, © Copyright 2020 - PMA Services, Inc.
a)Mild steel bars grade-I designated as Fe 410-S or Grade 60 b) Mild steel bars grade-II designated as Fe-410-o or Grade 40 . Most metals have a n value between 0.10 and 0.50. Gage marks spaced at 2 inches are applied with a punch. Inflation Fear and Green Hope Drive Investors Into Copper. Young's modulus of steel at room temperature is typically between 190 GPa (27500 ksi) and 215 GPa (31200 ksi). Steel Hardness Conversion Table. Recycle steel today! The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is AU$7.2b. Of the similar books on the market today, none explain in detail why one steel is comparable to another. • Some higher strength steel specifications require a spread of 10,000 or 20,000 PSI between the yield strength and tensile strength. Structural rivet steel , ASTM A141; high-strength structural rivet steel, ASTM A195 . Would this be a low n-value problem? φ in terms of 'N' or Dr φ= 20N +15o r φ=28o +15D Point resistance from SPT 4 N D 0.4 N L qp (tsf) = ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ N = avg value for 10D above and 4D below pile tip 10D 4D Q 1For a given initial φ unit point resistance for bored piles =1/3 to 1/2 of driven piles, and bulbous piles driven with great impact 2-2/3” x 1/2” Annular 8 in. measurement of a material's capacity to resist heat flow from one side Supply Condition : As Rolled, Normalized Rolling, Furnace Normalizing, … 15 in. It should be noted that in European design standards, the section factor is presented as A/V which has the same numerical value … The following table lists the buy price (what you can expect to pay to a dealer to purchase the coin) and sell value (what you can expect a dealer to pay you if you sell the coin).