Mar 22, 2016 - Son of Hamilcar Barca. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet. He first took the city Carthago Nova and moved on from there to other victories. In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus, and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus. "Any man who thinks he is the reincarnation of Hannibal or some such isn't quite possessed of all his buttons", quoted by. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. [104][105] Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., the commander of the Coalition of the Gulf War of 1990-1991, claimed, "The technology of war may change, the sophistication of weapons certainly changes. At this same time, the Carthaginian cavalry engaged the Roman cavalry and dispersed them, falling on the rear on the Roman infantry. Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus, then himself". [67] According to Strabo and Plutarch, Hannibal also received hospitality at the Armenian royal court of Artaxias I. The Romans then sent the general Quintus Fabius Maximus (l. c. 280-203 BCE) against Hannibal who employed a new tactic of wearing Hannibal down by keeping him constantly on the move and off balance. [18] In Rome, the Senate reacted to this apparent violation of the treaty by dispatching a delegation to Carthage to demand whether Hannibal had destroyed Saguntum in accordance with orders from Carthage. Nero had been engaging Hannibal in the south but slipped away in the night, defeated Hasdrubal, and returned without Hannibal ever noticing. He is considered one of the greatest generals of antiquity and his tactics are still studied and used in the present day. Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later. The Second Punic War broke out in 218 BC after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. To avoid this, Hannibal deceived the Romans into thinking that the Carthaginian army was going to escape through the woods. The task was daunting, to say the least. Hannibal was recalled from Italy to meet this threat and the two forces met on the field in 202 BCE at the Battle of Zama. Winning battles at Trebia (218 BC) and Lake Trasimene (217 BC), Hannibal defeated armies led by Tiberius Sempronius Longus and Gaius Flaminius Nepos. When Hannibal launched his elephant charge, Scipio's front line simply moved aside and the elephants ran harmlessly down the alleys between the Roman troops who then killed their handlers and turned the elephants around to crush the ranks of the Carthaginians; Hannibal was defeated and the Second Punic War was over. This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. He also had with him a number of elephants which he had found very useful in terrorizing the Roman army and their cavalry. The city sent for help from Rome, "[88], In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"[88] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but to send 15,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry as reinforcements to Rome. The Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as their dictator. No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. [25] The delegation's leader, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, demanded Carthage chose between war and peace, to which his audience replied that Rome could choose. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies. The historian Ernle Bradford writes that Hannibal's war against the Romans, may be regarded as the last effort of the old eastern and Semitic peoples to prevent the domination of the Mediterranean world by a European state. [12], After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. He left his brother Hasdrubal Barca (l. c. 244-207 BCE) in charge of the armies in Spain and set out with his men for Italy. The people of Rome mobilized to defend their city, which they were sure Hannibal would move on next. For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all." Hannibal ravaged Apulia but was unable to bring Fabius to battle, so he decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Hannibal established alliances with the tribes in the eastern Iberian Peninsula thanks to his diplomatic skills. This was the most costly ambush that the Romans ever sustained until the Battle of Carrhae against the Parthian Empire. Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Armyby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain). Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. His position in southern Italy, therefore, became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote. Friedrich, Johannes, Wolfgang Röllig, Maria Giulia Amadasi, and Werner R. Mayer. ‎A History Of: Hannibal and the Punic Wars is a biweekly biography of everybody's favourite Carthaginian general. Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander. [61] After an audit confirmed Carthage had the resources to pay the indemnity without increasing taxation, Hannibal initiated a reorganization of state finances aimed at eliminating corruption and recovering embezzled funds. [23] However, Rome, fearing the growing strength of Hannibal in Iberia, made an alliance with the city of Saguntum, which lay a considerable distance south of the River Ebro and claimed the city as its protectorate. [62] In order to reduce the power of the oligarchs, Hannibal passed a law stipulating the Hundred and Four be chosen by direct election rather than co-option. Oct 26, 2020 - Explore Trevor Robichaux Sr.'s board "Hannibal Barca" on Pinterest. [32] Stanford geoarchaeologist Patrick Hunt argues that Hannibal took the Col de Clapier mountain pass, claiming the Clapier most accurately met ancient depictions of the route: wide view of Italy, pockets of year-round snow, and a large campground. Victory in Italy was Hannibal’s sole objective. This erupted into full-scale mutiny under the leadership of Spendius and Matho and 70,000 Africans from Carthage's oppressed dependant territories flocked to join the mutineers, bringing supplies … It was a devastating defeat for Rome which resulted in a number of the Italian city-states defecting to Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BCE) declaring in favor of Hannibal and initiating the First Macedonian War with Rome. Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts. Their troops bolstered his army back to around 40,000 men. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome. Mark, Joshua J. [71], At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. No records exist of  Carthage awarding Hannibal any recognition for his service in Italy and he was honored more by Scipio's pardon and defense than by any actions on the part of his countrymen. Mark, published on 29 March 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This, he wrote, made Hannibal believe that he would die in Libya, but instead, it was at the Bithynian Libyssa that he would die. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years. Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march to reinforce Scipio. Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/hannibal/. Hannibal's army, made up of about 46,000 men, and included 37 battle elephants. According to Appian, several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio arrived there on a diplomatic mission from Rome. When Antiochus was defeated by the Romans at Magnesia in 189 BCE, Hannibal knew that he would be surrendered to Rome as part of the terms and again took flight. They never considered he would move his army over the mountains to reach them and thought he was still in Spain somewhere. Despite this, Flaminius remained passively encamped at Arretium. Books But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender. [96] Nonetheless, Polybius did recognize that the reputation for cruelty the Romans attached to Hannibal might in reality have been due to mistaking him for one of his officers, Hannibal Monomachus.[97]. His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas. His exact route over the Alps has been the source of scholarly dispute ever since (Polybius, the surviving ancient account closest in time to Hannibal's campaign, reports that the route was already debated). The two polities was the growing Roman republic and the African commercial city of Carthage. Hannibal Barca (/ˈhænɪbəl/; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋𐤟𐤁𐤓𐤒, ḤannibaÊ¿l Baraq; 247 â€“ between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded Carthage's main forces against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. Fabius' generals encouraged him to mount a night attack to support the garrison and crush the enemy between them but Fabius refused, believing that the garrison in place could easily prevent Hannibal from breaking out and would hold until morning. Hannibal's profile appears on the Tunisian five dinar bill issued on 8 November 1993, as well as on another new bill put into circulation on 20 March 2013. Hannibal. The Carthaginian senate believed he could handle the situation without any added expense on their part and suggested his men live off the land. [35] Radiocarbon dating secured dates of 2168BP or c.218BC, the year of Hannibal's march. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls. Phönizisch-Punische Grammatik. [75], Pliny the Elder[76] and Plutarch, in his life of Flamininus,[77] record that Hannibal's tomb was at Libyssa on the coast of the Sea of Marmara. In 207 BC, he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal. To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, in his article in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910-1911), praises Hannibal in these words: As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions. Hannibal's father Hamilcar Barca was the Carthaginian general. Archaeometry, v. 52, no. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer several Italian cities allied to Rome. He was called back to Africa to defend Carthage from Roman invasion, was defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE by Scipio Africanus (l. 236-183 BCE) and retired from service to Carthage. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18,000 men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16,000 Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year. by The Department of History, United States Military Academy (GNU FDL). Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome. The flow of defections to the Carthaginian side slowed and then stopped. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. A History Of: Hannibal and the Punic Wars is a biweekly biography of everybody's favourite Carthaginian general. 2004. Hannibal still won a number of notable victories: completely destroying two Roman armies in 212 BC, and killing two consuls (including the famed Marcus Claudius Marcellus) in a battle in 208 BC. Hasdrubal, recognizing that Spain was a lost cause, crossed the Alps to join Hannibal in Italy for a united attack on Rome. Scholar Philip Matyszak notes: There is much we do not know about this man, though he was one of the greatest generals in antiquity. Most recently, W.C. Mahaney has argued Col de la Traversette closest fits the records of ancient authors. [88], According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price. When Hannibal refused, Maharbal said, "You know how to win a victory, Hannibal, but you do not know how to use it." With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye[46] because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.[47]. They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped ten kilometres (6 mi) away. An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city. [36] Polybius wrote that Hannibal had crossed the highest of the Alpine passes: Col de la Traversette, between the upper Guil valley and the upper Po river is the highest pass. Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military capacity of the Roman people. have concluded that this and other evidence strongly supports the Col de la Traversette as being the 'Hannibalic Route' as had been argued by Gavin de Beer in 1974. 1 The End of the Second Punic War 2 Aftermath of the Second Punic War 2.1 Hannibal in Iberia 2.2 Hasdrubal in Italy 2.3 Hanno and Mago in Sicily 2.4 Carthaginian Revolution 3 The Egyptian War Hannibal, after receiving siege weapons from Carthage, lays siege to Rome. The son of a mighty Carthaginian warrior, Hannibal Barca will stop at nothing to wipe out the Roman Republic. Hannibal, in the meantime, was forced to continue his previous strategy of striking at Rome in quickly orchestrated engagements, and trying to win city-states to his cause, without being able to take any city by storm. Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania. There he commanded Hannibal to lay his hand on the body of the sacrificial victim and to swear that he would never be a friend to Rome" (3:11). Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Scipio retreated across the Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army mostly intact.[44]. As the two consuls traded off command of the army, it worked to Hannibal's advantage that the more ambitious and reckless of the two, Varro, held supreme authority on the first day of battle. The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. 275-228 BCE), the great and undefeated hero from the first Punic War and the Mercenary War. Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied "Pyrrhus of Epirus", because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible", he said, "to find two kings more enterprising than these". Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage. In 210 BC, Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at the Battle of Herdonia (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army and, in 208 BC, destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri at the Battle of Petelia. Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. Soon the Romans became aware of an alliance between Carthage and the Celts of the Po Valley in Northern Italy. Hannibal (also known as Hannibal Barca, l. 247-183 BCE) was a Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome (218-202 BCE). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Mar 2018. The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. Scipio, only 24 years old at the time, volunteered. The Carthaginians did not use hereditary surnames, but typically were distinguished from others bearing the same name using patronymics or epithets. When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He was never able to bring about another grand decisive victory that could produce a lasting strategic change. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce ), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Famed for his incredible fifteen day journey across the Alps and for his great victories over the Romans at Trebia and Cannae, he remained undefeated in battle until his raw armies were crushed by Scipio at Zama in 203 B.C., leaving Carthage at the mercy of the … Hannibal, however, could make no move on Rome because he lacked siege engines and reinforcements for his army. What became her or her son is not known. Hannibal's army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 38 elephants, almost none of which would survive the harsh conditions of the Alps.[30]. By the time they reached the other side, 17 days later, the army had been reduced to 26,000 men in total and a few elephants. The Celts were amassing forces to invade farther south in Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing. Fabius' tactic of refusing to meet Hannibal in open battle was beginning to wear on the Romans who demanded direct action. He was the son of Hamilcar Barca (ca. Fabius understood that Hannibal was no common adversary, however, and still refused to engage. The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines. They are notably implemented during an adventure racing starting from Lyon and leading to Turin through the Alps and bearing his name: the Hannibal raid. The Roman consuls mounted a siege of Capua in 212 BC. [79], Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains." (3:78). Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. (210). In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity. [58] In 212 BC, Marcellus conquered Syracuse and the Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army in Sicily in 211–210 BC. They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced. That it failed was due to the immense resilience of the Romans, both in their political constitution and in their soldiery. [27] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the foothills of the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal (lit. His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the Romans could take steps to check the rebellion. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal (he was also the father of Scipio Africanus). [40] These Hannibal surmounted with ingenuity, such as when he used vinegar and fire to break through a rockfall. In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua. It seemed that Hannibal had to either fight his way out or surrender but then, one night, the Romans saw a line of torches moving from the Carthaginian camp emplacement toward an area they knew was held by a strong garrison of their own. A true giant of military history, Hannibal forged his formidable reputation during the Punic Wars of the second century B.C. This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity. The Greek historian Polybius (l. c. 208-125 BCE) writes how Hannibal's father invited him to join an expedition to Spain when the boy was around nine years old. [57] Indeed, Fabius received the name "Cunctator" ("the Delayer") because of his policy of not meeting Hannibal in open battle but through attrition. Web. He had the Carthaginians penned up near Capua where retreat was blocked by the Volturnus River. Hannibal is generally regarded[by whom?] Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. While there is some truth to this, Hannibal's ultimate defeat was brought about by his own people's weakness for luxury, wealth, and ease as much as by the Roman refusal to surrender after Cannae. Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command[.]"[18]. Of the 80,000 Roman soldiers who took the field that day, 44,000 were killed while Hannibal lost around 6,000 men. The precise year and cause of Hannibal's death are unknown. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy. The First Punic war lasted for 20 years. He preferred to exploit his victory by entering into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power.[49]. The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. The loss of this war spelled the end for the Punic and Carthaginian culture as they were unable to acquire enough resources in the Second Punic War … Afterwards, Fabius resigned his position and Rufus disappears from history. His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations centered mainly round the cities of Campania. Fagan, Garret G. "The History of Ancient Rome". In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. Thus he was hard to recognize, not just by those who saw him briefly, but even by those who knew him well. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. This is done through a mixture of lecture style … Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal's requested reinforcements following the battle at Cannae. Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics. [60] Whatever the truth, the battle remained closely fought. [85][86] Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon bronze tablets in the temple of Juno Lacinia at Crotona, he sailed back to Africa. Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the Senate had ordered Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal. In 208 BCE, he defeated Hasdrubal at the Battle of Baecula using the same tactic Hannibal had at Cannae. Polybius writes how Hannibal, had a set of wigs made, each of which made him look like a man of a different age. [19] Silius suggests a Greek origin for Imilce, but Gilbert Charles-Picard argued for a Punic heritage based on an etymology from the Semitic root m-l-k ('chief, the 'king'). Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. He maintained this post for eight years until 221 BC. A mausoleum and colossus Hannibal, 17 meters high, is projected to be built on the Byrsa, the highest point of Carthage overlooking Tunis. For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas (Ἀννίβας). Related Content The solution was a military expedition to obtain the riches of the Iberian Peninsula. Mahaney, W.C., Allen, C.C.R., Pentlavalli, P., Dirszowsky, O., Tricart, P., Keiser, L., Somelar, P., Kelleher, B., Murphy, B., Costa, P.J.M., and Julig, P., 2014, "Polybius's ‘previous landslide’: proof that Hannibal's invasion route crossed the Col de la Traversette". "Hannibal." The Romans, meanwhile, had no idea of Hannibal's movements. Hannibal decided to bring the fight to the Romans and invade northern Italy in 218 BCE by crossing the mountain range of the Alps. Mark, Joshua J. Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of his enemy, despite his own inferior numbers. In the wake of these victories, he moved south plundering the countryside and … Fabius closely followed Hannibal's path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn out of the defensive. This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity. [87], According to the historian Livy, the Romans feared Hannibal's military genius, and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC, "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome. Last modified March 29, 2018. After the deaths of Hannibal and Scipio, Carthage continued to cause problems for Rome which eventually resulted in the Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) in which Carthage was destroyed. Hasdrubal … [10] Modern historians occasionally refer to Hannibal's brothers as Hasdrubal Barca and Mago Barca to distinguish them from the multitudes of other Carthaginians named Hasdrubal and Mago,[citation needed] but this practice is ahistorical, and is rarely applied to Hannibal. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. (24). as one of the best military strategists and tacticians of all time, with the double envelopment at Cannae an enduring legacy of tactical brilliance. Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.[84]. He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of supplies for his men. When the Roman army advanced, the center of the Carthaginian line began to give way so that it seemed as though Varro had been correct and the center would break. The loss of the First Punic War led directly to the general Hannibal Barca invading Roman territory during the Second Punic War. argue that factors used by De Beer to support Col de la Traversette including "gauging ancient place names against modern, close scrutiny of times of flood in major rivers and distant viewing of the Po plains" taken together with "massive radiocarbon and microbiological and parasitical evidence" from the alluvial sediments either side of the pass furnish "supporting evidence, proof if you will" that Hannibal's invasion went that way. According to the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Hannibal excelled as a tactician. His following campaign in 220 BC was against the Vaccaei to the west, where he stormed the Vaccaen strongholds of Helmantice and Arbucala. Hannibal and Second Punic War General The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of 218 BC with repercussions for more than two decades. By capturing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial sources of supply. P.174. by The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain), Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army. Cite This Work Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal. [91][92] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour". At the Battle of the Metaurus River in 207 BCE, however, Hasdrubal's army was defeated by the Romans under Gaius Claudius Nero (c. 237-199 BCE); Hasdrubal was killed and his forces scattered. [34] Biostratigraphic archaeological data has reinforced the case for Col de la Traversette; analysis of peat bogs near watercourses on both sides of the pass's summit showed that the ground was heavily disturbed "by thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of animals and humans" and that the soil bore traces of unique levels of Clostridia bacteria associated with the digestive tract of horses and mules. These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Varro believed he was facing an opponent like any of the others Roman legions had defeated in the past and was confident that the strength of the Roman force would break the Carthaginian line; this was precisely the conclusion Hannibal hoped he would reach. The Mercenary, or Truceless, War began in 241 BC as a dispute over the payment of wages owed to 20,000 foreign soldiers who had fought for Carthage on Sicily during the First Punic War. Hannibal's commander of the cavalry, Maharbal, encouraged Hannibal to attack anyway, confident they could win the war at this point when the Roman army was in disarray and the people in a panic. His request for these necessary supplies was refused by Carthage because the senate did not want to exert the effort or spend the money. [52] The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan mercenaries on the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests. Studien zu Plautus' Poenulus. Instead, he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses that still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base. As for the second Punic War, pro-Roman historians, such as Polybius and Livy, have tried to blame it on the actions of the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal Barca, who some believe was motivated by a need to avenge the wrongs committed against Carthage as well as by his undying hatred of Rome. This is done through a mixture of lecture style episodes as well as more relaxed Let's Talk epis… "[90] After Cannae the Romans showed a considerable steadfastness in adversity. [56] The works of Roman writers such as Livy (64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17), Frontinus (c. AD 40 – 103), and Juvenal (1st to 2nd century AD) show a grudging admiration for Hannibal. The members of the senate, who had refused to send him aid when he needed it in Italy, accused him of betraying the interests of the state by not taking Rome when he had the chance but, still, Hannibal remained true to the interests of his people until the senators trumped up further charges and denounced Hannibal to Rome claiming he was making Carthage a power again so as to challenge the Romans. The troops and their general had to battle not only the weather and the incline but hostile tribes who lived in the mountains. [2], Hannibal is the "hero" of teenager Sigmund Freud.
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